Karen Schroeder Kassel, MS, RD, MEd
With its crisp alpine air, rugged terrain, and unique physical challenges, the great outdoors offers an excellent venue for athletes. Whatever your level of fitness, a hike in the woods may be just the change of pace you need. To fully enjoy day hiking, follow these simple steps.
Make sure you hike trails that suit your physical ability, not just for you but for others who are hiking with you. Take the time to research where you are going and the condition of your hiking party. Use detailed descriptions of trails, including distance, altitude, difficulty, and estimated time to complete the hike. Trail guides are among the best resources for hiking information.
Choosing the right trip is only a small part of what you will need when you hit the trail.
You will definitely want to carry a daypack—a lightweight backpack—filled with these essentials:
Cell phones can be great for navigation, but they do not always receive a signal in mountainous areas. Make sure you take along a trail guide, compass, and map. Learn how to use them before heading out. Many outdoor stores offer short courses on using maps and compasses.
Like with any sport, the proper equipment is essential. First and foremost, make sure your hiking shoes and boots fit properly and are comfortable. The footwear should match the kind of hiking that you plan on doing. Boots however, are not the only equipment you need to when you hike. Here are some other items you will need to take along:
Mountain weather is generally cooler, cloudier, and windier than the climate in lowland areas, making improper dressing a serious health risk. Layering helps you stay cool when active and warm when at rest. Just add and remove clothes as needed.
Avoid wearing cotton. It will hold moisture on your body and interfere with temperature regulation.
Now that you are ready to head off into the wilderness, be sure to stay on the trail. This is easy to do if you follow the blazes, which are two-inch by six-inch marks painted on trees and rocks along the trails. Once you get above the tree line, look for small piles of rocks called cairns to stay on track. And always have your trail map handy.
Whenever possible, hike with other people. Allow the slowest person in your group to set the pace, especially if kids have come along, and take frequent breaks for water, snacks, and rest.
Hiking requires the same cardiovascular fitness that
running, cycling, and other endurance sports demand, but relies on different muscle groups, which can leave you aching in unfamiliar places.
Regular workouts can help you stay ready for your next hike. Concentrate on your leg muscles and core during strength training. Keep in mind you will need to combine that with some cardiovascular training for endurance.
Trekking poles (or ski poles) provide extra stability on challenging terrain and take some of the strain off ankles, knees, and hips. To keep your feet comfortable, be aware of sensitive areas and treat them with moleskin before they progress into painful blisters, and break in new hiking boots before taking them on a serious trek.
If you plan on hiking in higher elevations over 7,000 feet, remember that the higher you go, the less oxygen there is available. Headache, dizziness, and fatigue are all signs of acute mountain sickness. Prevention is your best weapon. Condition your body by taking time in advance to get used to being in a high altitude environment. During your hike, you will want to keep a steady pace and breathe in slow, regular patterns. Deep breathing helps offset the lack of oxygen.
Dehydration can occur as a result of strenuous activity, high altitudes, and not drinking enough water. It can give you a headache and make you feel tired, irritable, and dizzy. Make sure to drink plenty of water before, during, and after your hike.
Consult your trail guide to learn which animals you may meet along your trek. Check with the local ranger to find out if there are any special rules you need to follow.
If you plan to hike in desert areas, avoid snakes, like venomous rattlesnakes.
Hiking boots which go above the ankle are advisable.
In woody areas, you may encounter bears, moose, or deer. It is important to know what to do if you have an unexpected encounter in the wild:
Bring along bug spray and insect repellent. And always stay on the marked trail to avoid
deer ticks, which can cause
lyme disease. Staying on the trail can also help you avoid poison ivy.
By following these steps, you will be prepared to enjoy your time in the woods. To help preserve the woods for others, follow the rules of low-impact hiking: leave only footprints, take only memories, and kill only time.
American Hiking Society
Leave No Trace Organization
Hike Nova Scotia
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Get Ready to Hike. Hiking Dude website. Available at: http://www.hikingdude.com/hiking-training.php. Updated December 18, 2012. Accessed December 18, 2012.
Hiking Safety Rules. Trails website. Available at: http://www.trails.com/list_53_hiking-safety-rules.html. Accessed December 17, 2012.
Hiking safety tips. Georgia Department of Natural Resources website. Available at:
http://gastateparks.org/Hiking-Safety. Accessed December 17, 2012.
High Altitude Hiking Safety Techniques. Sports and Recreation at Tree website. Available at: http://www.tree.com/sports-recreation/high-altitude-hiking-safety-at-high-altitudes.aspx. Accessed December 17, 2012.
Hiking: An Activity for Almost Any Age. American College of Sports Medicine website: http://www.acsm.org/docs/fit-society-page/acsmfspsummer2012.pdf. Updated Summer 2012. Accessed December 17, 2012.
Hiking Poles. Hiking Dude website. Available at: http://www.hikingdude.com/hiking-sticks.php. Updated December 18, 2012. Accessed December 18, 2012.
Lost in the Woods. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation website. Available at: http://www.dec.ny.gov/docs/legal_protection_pdf/lostinwoods.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2012.
Water for Hiking. Hiking Dude website. Available at: http://www.hikingdude.com/hiking-water.php. Updated December 18, 2012. Accessed December 18, 2012.
Wild Animals: Four Hiking Safety Tips. Sports and Recreation at Tree website. Available at: http://www.tree.com/sports-recreation/high-altitude-hiking-safety-at-high-altitudes.aspx. Accessed December 17, 2012.
Last reviewed December 2012 by Brian Randall, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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